Despite food manufacturers claiming that refined vegetable oils were healthy, Americans experienced an up-rise in heart disease during the early 20th century. Like many new inventions, few questions were initially posited. Unfortunately, an alternate nutrient took the blame due to the research of a single scientist.
In 1951, American physiologist and professor Ancel Keys went to Europe in search of the cause of cardiovascular disease. In his quest, he went to observe the eating habits of individuals living Naples, Italy due to reports of a low prevalence of heart disease.
During this time, post-war conditions resulted in finite and unusual circumstances in regards to agriculture and infrastructure. Therefore what Keys perceived as a cultural tradition was dubbed the "Mediterranean diet".
Keys observed the residents in Naples consumed primarily pasta and plain pizza, with vegetables, olive oil, cheese, fruit for dessert, a moderate amount of wine, and very little meat (except among individuals belonging to a higher socioeconomic status).
Through an informal study measuring cholesterol serum levels among Rotary club members (those who could not afford meat, but could afford cheese) conducted by Keys's wife, whom at the time was a medical technologist, Keys deduced that avoiding meat resulted in a lower incidence of heart attacks.
Ancel Keys continued on his biased search for proof that a diet high in saturated fat is correlated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. He eventually compiled data from six more countries with high rates of heart disease and diets typically high in saturated fat. At first glance, Keys's research seemed logical and compelling. The evidence was based on the premise that individuals in America, who consumed high amounts of saturated fat, died from heart disease at a higher rate than individuals in Japan, who consumed low amounts of saturated fat.
Unfortunately, Keys had gained the interest of people in positions of power. Upon President Eisenhower's heart attack in 1955, Keys proposed his theory to the president's primary care physician, Paul Dudley White. Days following, White began to advise to the public to reduce the consumption of saturated fat and cholesterol in an effort to prevent cardiovascular disease.
Through his connections and influence, Keys soon joined the nutrition committee of the American Heart Association (AHA) which, based on Keys's research, released a report in 1961 that advised patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease to reduce their consumption of saturated fat. (Interestingly enough, the AHA began its rise to prominence in 1948, the same year Proctor & Gamble donated over $1.7 million to the organization - resulting in the AHA indebted to Crisco.)
In 1961, Time magazine placed Ancel Keys on the front cover touting him as "the twenthiest century's most influential nutrition expert."
By 1970, Keys published the Seven Countries Study, which detailed his original research - this study has now been cited in over a million other scientific publications. While Keys associative observations between saturated fat and cardiovascular disease never proved causation, he had won the battle of public opinion.
With the help of Ancel Keys, the American medical community and mainstream media has advised consumers to stop eating the animal products that have been consumed for centuries, replacing them with bread, pasta, margarine, low-fat dairy, and vegetable oil. This was the dietary shift that was codified by the United States government in the late 1970s.
Central Committee for Medical And Community Program of the American Heart Association. (1961). Dietary Fat and Its Relation to Heart Attacks and Strokes. Circulation [online] 23, pp.133-36. Available at: https://circ.ahajournals.org/content/circulationaha/23/1/133.full.pdf [Accessed 26 Jan. 2019]
Keys, A. (1953). Atherosclerosis: A Problem in Newer Public Health. Journal of Mt. Sinai Hospital, [online] 20(2), pp.118-39.
Keys, A. (1970). Coronary Heart Disease in Seven Countries. Circulation. 41 (1), pp.1186-95.
Keys, A. (1995). Mediterranean Diet and Public Health: Personal Reflections. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, [online] 61 (6), pp.1321S-1323S. Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/61.6.1321s [Accessed 26 Jan. 2019]
Marvin, H. (1964). The 40 Year War on Heart Disease. New York: American Heart Association.
Mercola, J. (2017). Fat For Fuel. Carlsbad, California: Hay House.
Teichholz, N. (2014). The Big Fat Surprise. New York: Simon & Schuster, pp.32-33.
The only other strategy that has so many research-baked benefits for longevity is long-term calorie restriction, which requires a significant long-term reduction in the amount of food you eat so that you are essentially living on the brink of starvation. Compliance with calorie-restricted diets is abysmal. Fortunately, there are many ways to fast, and there is likely a form of fasting out there that you will be able to tolerate and incorporate into your life. It's important for you to remember that fasting can provide nearly identical benefits without the pain, suffering, and compliance challenges of calorie restriction.
Instead of regulating how much food you eat, as with long-term calorie restriction, you only need to modify when you eat - and of course wisely choose the foods you do eat.Simply cycling between periods of eating and fasting on a daily, weekly, or monthly schedule has been shown to provide many of the same benefits as long-term calorie restriction. Choosing when to eat and when to fast in this way is known as "intermittent fasting."
"Don't eat less - eat less often."
The decline of honey bees and other pollinators have been at the forefront of recent scientific publications and popular press for quite some time. A growing body of evidence suggests that no single stressor alone is responsible for these observed declines; but rather, the phenomena is probably a combination of various factors acting in synchrony, to have a negative impact on pollinator populations.
A recent large-scale, real-world field study, published in the journal Science, evaluating neonicotinoid pesticides has been added to a growing body of evidence suggesting that these agricultural chemicals are indeed harming bee populations to a unprecedented level.
Researchers investigated three different bee species across 33 sites in the United
Kingdom, Germany and Hungary, and found that exposure to neonicotinoid-treated crops is associated with a reduced capacity of bee species to establish new populations in the year following exposure.
For honey bees, the researchers found both negative (Hungary and United Kingdom) and positive (Germany) effects during crop flowering. In Hungary, negative effects on honey bees persisted over winter and resulted in smaller colonies in the following spring (24% declines). In wild bees (Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis), reproduction was negatively correlated with neonicotinoid residues (Woodcock et al., 2017).
Bayer and Syngenta, makers of neonicotinoid pesticides, promptly disputed the researchers’ conclusions—even though they partially funded the study (Gardner, 2017).
- Small bodied species show greater sensitivity to neonicotinoids.
- Dosed bees were significantly less likely to return to the nest than control bees.
- Bees in the two neonicotinoid treatments grew significantly more slowly and had an 85% reduction in the number of new queens produced when compared to control colonies.
- Concentration of thiamethoxam (a neonicotinoid) in pollen significantly negatively predicted both colony weight gain and production of new queens.
- Field-realistic doses of neonicotinoids (<3.5 ng/g) resulted in sublethal impacts on their ability to successfully build nests and provision offspring.
- Field studies using bumblebees demonstrate that exposure to neonicotinoid-treated flowering crops can have significant impacts on colony growth and reproductive output depending on the levels exposed to.
Bees May Be Exposed to 32 Pesticides When Collecting Pollen
The researchers observed that pollen collected by honey bees was consistently contaminated with pesticides throughout the 16-week observation period. Pesticide residue analyses of bee-collected pollen revealed contamination by up to 32 different pesticides spanning 9 chemical classes (Table 1 - Click to enlarge).
It is evident that bees and other non-target organisms inhabiting farmland are routinely exposed to far more complex cocktails of pesticides than any experimental protocol has yet attempted to examine. Since researchers typically study the effects of only one chemical at a time, a major challenge for scientists and regulators is to attempt to understand how chronic exposure to complex mixtures of neonicotinoids and other chemicals affects wildlife, including humans.
Bees are Crucial for Pollinating Crops
Implications of These Findings - We Too Are Full of Pesticides
A Solution - Vote With Your Dollar
It is up to everyone of us to source foods that we know how they are grown and produced - easier said than done when shopping at a supermarket. Try shopping at your local farmer's markets, where you can meet the farmers in person and know how they are growing the food you purchase. You should know what is in your food. Collectively, we have the power to choose what we as consumers want.
A Better Solution - Grow Your Own Food
As for pesticides in your body, your best bet for minimizing health risks from herbicide and pesticide exposure — including both the active and "inactive" ingredients — is to avoid them in the first place by eating organic as much as possible.
Kleijn, D., Winfree, R., Bartomeus, I., Carvalheiro, L., Henry, M., & Isaacs, R. et al. (2015). Delivery of crop pollination services is an insufficient argument for wild pollinator conservation. Nature Communications, 6, 7414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8414
Long, E., & Krupke, C. (2016). Non-cultivated plants present a season-long route of pesticide exposure for honey bees. Nature Communications, 7, 11629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11629
UCSF Presentation Reveals Glyphosate Contamination in People Across America. (2017). Organicconsumers.org. Retrieved 1 August 2017, from https://www.organicconsumers.org/news/ucsf-presentation-reveals-glyphosate-contamination-people-across-america
Woodcock, B., Bullock, J., Shore, R., Heard, M., Pereira, M., & Redhead, J. et al. (2017). Country-specific effects of neonicotinoid pesticides on honey bees and wild bees. Science, 356(6345), 1393-1395. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa1190
Based on research that found a relationship between exposure to fluoride and lowered IQ, which accounted for various confounding variables, a daily dose should not exceed 0.005 mg of fluoride per day, or 0.0010 mg of fluoride per kilogram of bodyweight per day, for children aged 8-13 years.
Several groups of researchers indicate that fluoride is a developmental neurotoxicant in humans. In addition, a separate group of researchers observed a significant association between the prevalence of artificial water fluoridation and and the prevalence of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the United States.
Another group of researchers observed a significant inverse relationship between both urinary and serum fluoride levels and IQ among children. The researchers observed a statistically significant IQ difference of 4.3 IQ points between the high (n=106) and control (n=110) urinary fluoride groups. Similarly, another group of researchers observed that both serum fluoride, and urine fluoride were significantly related to water fluoride levels, and both were also significantly related to lowered IQ. The high urinary fluoride level group, the IQ point difference, compared to the control group, was 2.42 points per milligram of fluoride per liter.
Regardless of the mechanism(s), the researchers observed that children who lived in areas with high fluoride exposure had lower IQ scores, compared to those who lived in low-exposure areas.
Choi et al., evaluated 10 studies that had an average level of less than 3 milligrams of fluoride per liter of water, which is lower than the drinking water standard in the United States, and observed that the average IQ loss among 8 of the studies was 7.4 points. The quality of this meta-analysis prompted further research, using the same data, to estimate a Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) for IQ loss, as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is in the process of developing a health-based drinking water standard for fluoride.
- the traditional Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level/No Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL/NOAEL);
- and the benchmark dose (BMD) methods.
The current average mean fluoride exposures for US children range from about 0.80 mg F/day to about 1.65 mg F/day. These doses are 17 to 35 times higher than the higher estimated reference dose of 0.047 mg F/day. These results imply that at present the risk of IQ loss among children in the US is high.
Fluoride may be similar to lead and mercury in having no threshold below which exposures may be considered safe.
In a population of 320 million, the population level impact of an average 5 IQ point loss, beyond purely dollars of income loss, is a reduction of about 4 million people with IQ>130 and an increase of almost as many people with IQ<70.
Choi, A., Sun, G., Zhang, Y., & Grandjean, P. (2012). Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(10), 1362-1368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104912
Malin, A., & Till, C. (2015). Exposure to fluoridated water and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States: an ecological association. Environmental Health, 14(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-015-0003-1
Wang, S., Wang, Z., Cheng, X., Li, J., Sang, Z., & Zhang, X. et al. (2007). Arsenic and Fluoride Exposure in Drinking Water: Children’s IQ and Growth in Shanyin County, Shanxi Province, China. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(4), 643-647. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.9270
Zhang, S., Zhang, X., Liu, H., Qu, W., Guan, Z., & Zeng, Q. et al. (2015). Modifying Effect of COMT Gene Polymorphism and a Predictive Role for Proteomics Analysis in Children’s Intelligence in Endemic Fluorosis Area in Tianjin, China. Toxicological Sciences, 144(2), 238-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfu311
In the video clip above, Patrick Moore, a founder of environmental consultancy company Greenspirit Strategies Ltd., was interviewed by French investigative journalist Paul Moreira as part of a six-month-long investigation for the documentary "Bientôt dans vos assiettes" (Soon on your plate). The documentary discusses the damage done in Argentina over the past decade by the increasing use of pesticides on GMO soy farms, noting the prevalence of illnesses, including cancer, among those living in the vicinity of the Roundup Ready crop. As seen in the interview, in which Moore was asked to speak about efficacy of golden rice, and eventually, on the safety of the pesticide, glyphosate, Moore claims that one "can drink a whole quart of it and it won't hurt you."
Moore: Do not believe that glyphosate in Argentina is causing increases in cancer. You can drink a whole quart of it and it won't hurt you.
Interviewer: You want to drink some? We have some here.
Moore: I'd be happy to actually... Not, not really, but...
Interviewer: Not really?
Moore: I know it wouldn't hurt me.
Interviewer: If you say so, I have some glyphosate.
Moore: No, I'm not stupid.
chicken DNA (%)
Chicken Grill Deluxe
Grilled Chicken Sandwich
Chipotle Chicken Grilled Wrap
Country Chicken - Grilled
Oven Roasted Chicken Sandwich
Sweet Onion Chicken Teriyaki (chicken strips)
Subway Ingredients List:
CHICKEN PATTY: Chicken breast meat, water, seasoning (sea salt, sugar, chicken stock, salt, flavours, canola oil. onion powder, garlic powder, spice, chicken fat, honey), soy protein, sodium phosphates.
CHICKEN STRIPS: chicken breasts (Boneless, skinless), water, soy protein concentrate, modified potato starch, sodium phosphate, potassium chloride, salt, maltodextrin, yeast extract, flavours, spices, dextrose, onion powder, carmelized sugar, paprika, chicken broth, vinegar solids, paprika extract.
CHICKEN STRIPS (teriyaki glazed): Chicken breast strips (see above), teriyaki (water, corn syrup, soy sauce (water, wheat, soybean, salt, sodium benzoate [a preservative]), rice vinegar, modified corn starch, sugar, tomato paste, ginger, vinegar, garlic, sesame oil, sesame seed, salt, dehydrated green onion, dehydrated red bell pepper, natural flavours, autolyzed yeast extract, dehydrated garlic, sodium benzoate (a preservative), spices, citric acid, soybean oil, dry yeast (torula), dehydrated onion.
Subway defended CBC's claim by sending samples of the chicken to two independent labs (Maxxam Analytics and Elisa Technologies, Inc.), in which the labs found less than 1 percent soy protein in the tested samples. Jeff Lanteigne, vice-president of product development and quality assurance at Grand River Foods, the Cambridge, Ont.-based supplier of Subway's chicken product states, "As reported to CBC Marketplace before the segment aired, Subway chicken strips and oven-roasted chicken are made from 100 per cent white meat and contain 1 per cent or less of soy protein. We use this functional ingredient to help stabilize the texture and moisture,"
Who do you trust?
Here's A Solution
Fast food wrappers and containers, made up of grease-resistance packaging, contain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), which are synthetic compounds with fluorine present. Some of these PFASs have been associated with cancer, developmental toxicity, immunotoxicity, and other health effects.
Here's A Solution
Schaider, L. A., Balan, S. A., Blum, A., Andrews, D. Q., Strynar, M. J., Dickinson, M. E., … Peaslee, G. F. (2017). Fluorinated compounds in U.S. Fast food packaging. Environmental Science & Technology Letters. doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.6b00435
Newspeak: ambiguous euphemistic language used chiefly in political propaganda; designed to diminish range of thought
The new gene edited crop technique has not been used to introduce foreign genes into plants, so far, as compared to the older methods of GE like CRISPR. This process of mixing species is called transgenesis. Catlyxt, a subsidiary of Cellectis experimenting with gene-edited crops, describes the technique like moving the cursor in a word processor to a specific location and making small changes to the text. This loophole offers an opportunity to the FDA to permit companies to roll out the new techniques. So far, acres of gene-edited crops have already been grown in the United States, without restriction or regulation.
Primarily a biopharmaceutical company, Collectis creates gene-edited crops as a side business, after collaborating with behemoth companies like Monsanto and DuPont.
Gene editing is not being limited to plants. Recombinetics, a Minnesota company, is editing the genes of farm animals to create cattle without horns.
The organic food standards have been recommended to exclude gene-edited crops even if grown without pesticides by a USDA advisory board.
Former Iowa Governor Tom Vilsack is now the Secretary of Agriculture. Vilsack has been a strong supporter of genetically engineered crops, including bio-pharmaceutical corn. Vilsack is an ardent supporter of corn and soy-based biofuels, which use as much or more fossil fuel energy to produce them as they generate, while driving up world food prices and literally starving the poor. Overall, Vilsack’s record is one of aiding and abetting Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) or factory farms and promoting animal cloning. Vilsack is widely regarded as a shill for biotech giants like Monsanto.
Michael Taylor, a former vice president of public policy and chief lobbyist at Monsanto Company, is the new senior advisor for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Michael Taylor is the person who is the leading spokesperson on the dangers of GM foods. Taylor also oversaw the policy regarding Monsanto’s genetically engineered bovine growth hormone (rbGH/rbST). This growth hormone, which has been banned in Canada, Europe, Japan, Australia and New Zealand because of cancer risks and other health concerns, was approved in the United States while Taylor was in charge at the FDA.
Pennsylvania Agriculture Secretary Dennis Wolff may be appointed the new Under-Secretary of Agriculture for Food Safety. Not only did Dennis Wolff attempt to ban rbGH-free labels, but OCA points out that he has “also worked to deprive communities the right to ban toxic sewage sludge, factory farms, and GMOs.”
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