Our ancestors have used mushrooms as medicine for thousands of years. The Greek physician
Hippocrates, 450 BCE, classified the amadou mushroom (Fomes fomentarius) as a potent anti-inflammatory and for cauterizing wounds. Although mushrooms have long been used by various cultures, only recently has modern science rediscovered what the ancients knew long ago—that mushrooms can be deep reservoirs of powerful medicines (Stamets & Zwickey, 2014).
Indeed, it is well established that both the human population and Mother Earth could benefit from the existence of mushrooms which could one day save the world. From fulfilling our macro-nutrient needs to increasing our immune system in order to fight off viruses & diseases (Stamets, 2009; 2012).
Some mushrooms, however, are now under clinical trials due to their mind altering effects which has the potential to cure a number of mental health disorders such as depression, addiction, and anxiety with many more results soon to come. And as long as there are organizations who are allowed to study any psychedelics with medicinal uses, then it could very possibly be that they have been part of our evolution for thousands of years (Jr, 2017; Mcrae, 2017; Thomas, Malcolm & Lastra, 2017).
The benefits of mycelium to our planet
Mycelium is the roots of white fuzzy threads or network where mushrooms spawn. Paul Stamets has briefly explained on Fungi the impact mycelium has on our ecology
Four components of mycorestoration are described in detail:
These hardwood dowels, or “plug spawn”, have been inoculated with a single species of fungi. Plug spawn is used to inoculate a fresh cut log to encourage the growth and fruiting of a specific species of edible and/or medicinal mushroom. Plug spawn can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 4-6 months before use.
Log Incubation period
Log Fruiting Cycle
After the incubation period, logs can be soaked to force a fruiting.
Ballroom, Jr. (2017). Psychedelic Science 2017, Psilocybin Mushrooms and The Mycology of Consciousness. Retrieved 01/16/2019 from http://psychedelicscience.org/conference/interdisciplinary/psilocybin-mushrooms-and-the-mycology-of-consciousness
Mcrae, M. (2017). Science Alert, Research Shows Magic Mushrooms Can Offer Real Benefits in Depression Therapy. Retrieved 01/16/2019 from https://www.sciencealert.com/therapy-for-depression-gets-a-significant-boost-when-combined-with-psilocybin
Stamets, P. (2005). Mycellium running. Berkeley, California,: Ten Speed Press.
Stamets, P. (2009). Fungi Perfecti, The Search for Agarikon. Retrieved 01/16/2019 from http://www.fungi.com/blog/items/the-search-for-agarikon.html
Stamets, P. (2012). The Blog, Agarikon: Ancient Mushroom for Modern Medicine. Retrieved 01/16/2019 from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/paul-stamets/agarikon-mushroom_b_1861947.html
Stamets, P., & Zwickey, H. (2014). Medicinal Mushrooms: Ancient Remedies Meet Modern Science. Integrative medicine (Encinitas, Calif.), 13(1), 46-7. Retrieved 01/16/2019 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4684114/pdf/46-47.pdf
Thomas, K., Malcolm, B. and Lastra, D. (2017). Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy: A Review of a Novel Treatment for Psychiatric Disorders. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. [online] 59(5), pp.446-455. Available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2017.1320734 [Accessed 16 Jan. 2019]
Dunbar's number is a suggested cognitive limit to the number of people with whom one can maintain stable social relationships—relationships in which an individual knows who each person is and how each person relates to every other person. This number was first proposed in the 1990s by British anthropologist Robin Dunbar, who found a correlation between primate brain size and average social group size. By using the average human brain size and extrapolating from the results of primates, he proposed that humans can comfortably maintain only 150 stable relationships.
Dunbar is an anthropologist at the University College of London, who wrote a paper on Co-Evolution Of Neocortex Size, Group Size And Language In Humans where he hypothesizes:
... there is a cognitive limit to the number of individuals with whom any one person can maintain stable relationships, that this limit is a direct function of relative neocortex size, and that this in turn limits group size ... the limit imposed by neocortical processing capacity is simply on the number of individuals with whom a stable inter-personal relationship can be maintained.
Dunbar supports this hypothesis through studies by a number of field anthropologists. These studies measure the group size of a variety of different primates; Dunbar then correlate those group sizes to the brain sizes of the primates to produce a mathematical formula for how the two correspond. Using his formula, which is based on 36 primates, he predicts that 147.8 is the "mean group size" for humans, which matches census data on various village and tribe sizes in many cultures.
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